支持恐怖主义的言论有罪吗?马萨诸塞州认为有罪

Jeff Howard写到,2012年,Tarek Mehanna被美国法院判处监禁17年半,罪名是密谋支持恐怖分子。

案例详情

Tarek Mehanna是一名29岁的美国公民和药理学家,生长在美国马萨诸塞州波士顿一个僻静的郊区萨德伯里。Mehanna的麻烦开始于2004年,当时他去 了也门旅行。Mehanna坚称他的旅行是一次私人行程,为了加深他的穆斯林信仰——具体地说,就是寻找一所穆斯林学校学习经典的伊斯兰法律。美国马萨 诸塞州地方法院不同意这种说法,声称他是在寻找恐怖主义的训练营地。法院裁定,尽管Mehanna没有找到训练营地,却犯下了密谋杀害海外美国人的罪。 2012年4月12日,他被判处监禁17年半。
密谋杀害海外美国人还不仅仅是Mehanna犯下的唯一罪行,法院发现他还有进一步犯罪行 为:密谋“向恐怖分子提供物质援助”。Mehanna 从他不成功的也门之行回国后,创办了一个网站,在上面他提供了一些支持吉哈德(伊斯兰圣战)的文件的英文译本。其中一份文件,《参加伊斯兰圣战的39种方 式》,解释了穆斯林为保卫其他穆斯林教徒的各种途径,从参与抵御外国侵略者的战争到如何照顾穆斯林孤寡妇女和儿童。
作为Mehanna参与 密谋支持恐怖分子的进一步证据,原告(列举几个耶鲁大学政治学者Andrew March所举的例子)解释了他是如何“观看伊斯兰圣战的录像”,“讨论如何努力成为有同样志向的青年”,“讨论”某种暴力行为像自杀炸弹之类的“宗教正 当理由”,“为撰写传播教科书、录像和其他媒介创建,或翻译,接受贷款,以激励其他人参加暴力的伊斯兰圣战”,“在网络上搜索录像的链接”,为“颂扬热爱 本·拉登”做宣传。
Mehanna在他被判刑时发表了一篇充满激情的演说,他解释说,他什么都没做,只是记录了他大体支持上那些为了阻止穆 斯林在自己的国土上被外国强权所杀害所做的反抗,并希望能发起这方面的讨论。“审判审的不是我对穆斯林杀害美国平民的立场。” Mehanna宣称,他从未翻译、编辑、撰写那些声称在大型购物中心里暗杀无辜的美国平民是有正当理由的文件。相反,他说审判审的是“我对美国人杀害穆斯 林平民的立场,那就是穆斯林应该保卫他们的国土不容外来入侵者侵犯。”

作者意见

有足够的理由支持Mehanna的言论受到宪法第一修正案的保护。最高法院规定,以传递专业情报支持恐怖分子理所当然属于犯罪,但Mehanna的网站上 的材料并不构成专业情报。他只是表达了自己的观点,认为美国在过去几十年里对穆斯林国家发动的战争是非正义的。非正义的战争的定义就是一场被入侵者合理反 抗的战争。人们不需要对Mehanna的道德观点表示赞同——我就不赞同——就能看到它实质上只是对原则的一种主张。宪法第一修正案要保护正是这样的言 论。

- Jeff Howard

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评论 (6)

读者须知:自动翻译由Google翻译提供,虽然可以反映作者大意,但不一定能提供精准的译意。

  1. Terorizem vsekakor je obsodbe vredno dejanje in ustrahovanje ljudi, pa naj bo v skladu s kakršnimi koli interesi, mnenji ali nasprotji, ne sme biti dopuščeno. Sam iz povedanega v članku nisem povsem prepričan, ali je šlo res za terorizem, vendar pa se zdi nekako jasno, da je za to obstajal utemeljen sum, saj je navsezadnje Tarek goreč vernik, ki je zabredel na občutljivo področje – politični in medrasni konflikt, in je tako z vidika Američanov predstavljal grožnjo. Toda predstavljal je grožnjo, kaj pa je dejansko zagrešil? Če obstajajo trdni dokazi, potem je edino prav, da je obsojen in za zapahi, če pa je tam zgolj za voljo “preventive”, potem je sistem naredil napako. In zna se zgoditi, da tak sistem večkrat naredi napako…

  2. I agree that terrorism is something that should not happen in the world but, what is terrorism in fact is a real question and what is a terrorism support speech. People differently perceive the events caused by various leaders or groups in the world therefore who is to say that, say, a leader of a western state publicly supports and implements “terror” upon a nation which does not support the west, isn’t that terrorism as well?! if it should be prevented and punished shouldn’t this kind of speech be suctioned on all levels and all sides.

  3. I can’t see what makes you think he constitutes a danger and a threat to anyone. And going to Yemen certainly constitutes an attempt to get out of the little bubble of suburban Boston. How did he not show respect to other religions? He simply showed a questionable loyalty to those in other countries who share his beliefs, and a questionable but widely held belief that armed aggression should be resisted.

  4. This man, and others with similar views, should be locked up away from society. They are a danger and a threat to the American people and have been brain washed all their lives. Anyone who is so ignorant and closed minded about other people’s views really need to experience the world outside of their little arrogant bubble. Even if one does not agree with the views of another religion, one should still be human enough to have a little RESPECT.

  5. I don’t agree with sentencing him to prison, however. I do agree that terrorist actions, whether independent or state supported pose a threat to society as a whole. Maybe I don’t care so much about the country it’s self. But I do care about my friends and family, so if I knew someone was doing something to hard them, I would have a hard time deciding my course of action. This must be decided as a nation, not just on an individual basis. Because it is quite possible(not in this case) that those prosecuted are innocent

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“言论自由大讨论”是牛津大学圣安东尼学院达伦多夫自由研究计划下属的学术项目。

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