小便キリスト

1987年以来アーティストAndres Serranoが小便を入れたツボにプラスチックの十字架を入れた作品「浸礼(小便キリスト)」は評価を二分してきました。2011年4月、この作品はthe Collection Lambert art museumで修復不可能なほどに破壊されました。The Collection Lambart は小便キリストを展示するべきだったのかKatie Engelhartが考えます。

ケース

1987年、ニューヨークを拠点にするアーティストAndres Serranoは自分の小便を入れたツボにプラスチックの十字架を入れてそれを写真にとりました。その作品は、タイトル「浸礼(小便キリスト)」として1989年にSoutheastern Centre for Contemporary Artsのビジュアルアート部門賞を獲得し、それなりの称賛をうけました。Serranoは、この作品を宗教の商業化への批評として、つくりあげました。

この小便キリストに美的価値を見出す人は、全員ではないはずです。多くはこの写真を趣味が良くないと一蹴してしまうでしょう。ワシントンDCからは、共和党の上院議員がこの作品は公序良俗に反すると非難しました。声高に叫ばれた批判は、その作品が神への冒涜と同等のものだというものでした。SerranoがThe National Endowment for the Arts から間接的な金銭的援助をもらっているということが明らかになった後は、この写真は、そのような騒動に加えて、アメリカのパブリックアートの資金援助に関する大きな議論を巻き起こしました。そうベンキリストは世界中のギャラリーで20年にもわたり展示され続けていますが、この論争は収まりを見せません。Serranoの展覧会はつい最近オーストラリアとスウェーデンで襲撃されたこともありました。

事態がわるくなったのは、小便キリストがフランス、アビニョンのthe Collection Lambert art museumで展示される予定だった2011年の4月のことです。展覧会が開催される直前に約1000人のデモが抗議としてアビニョンに集まりました。 美術館は冷静に警備を増やしました。しかしながら、その1日後には、小便キリストを破壊することを目的とした黒メガネの3、4人組が美術館に入ってきて、 中に入るや警備員を威嚇し、「ハンマーとつるはしのスクリュードライバーのような物体」で修復不可能なほどに小便キリストを破壊しました。美術館は直ちに閉じられ、その後何人かの従業員は死の脅威を報告しました。しかしながら、美術館はそれ以降また開けられました。美術館館長のEric Mézil は「そうすれば野蛮人がなにをできるか見ることができるから」人々に壊された作品を見てほしいと言っています。

著者の意見

美術館はその作品を展示して正しかったし、また同じく美術館を襲撃を受けた後に開いたことも正しかったでしょう。批判する人たちは、小便キリストは神への冒涜であると言いますし、たしかに、2005年に出版されたムハンマドの戯画とも比べられています。 しかしながら、アーティストの、世間に表現する権利は、それが視覚的であるにせよないにせよ、そしてそれが観衆を立腹させる結果となったとしても、守られ なけれななりません。自らをサングラスによって隠した作品の破壊者たちは、違法な事をしでかしました。そして、美術館は、暴力的な脅しに対して立ち上がり 立派でした。今回のケースでひとつだけ注意をする点は、美術館の従業員が本人たちの意思に反して、危機にさらされていたことです。

ムハンマドの戯画を批判する人たちは、その読者たちが自分たちの意思に反して、論争的な内容に気付かず、その戯画に出くわすことがあることを指摘し ています。この批判は今回のケースにはあてはまりません。小便キリストが神への冒涜であると信じている人たちには明白な選択肢があります。単にこの作品が 展示されている美術館に来なければいいのです。

- Katie Engelhart

リーディングリスト


コメント (6)

自動翻訳はGoogle翻訳を使用しています。寄稿者の大まかな考えは伝わるかもしれないですが、正確でニュアンスを持った翻訳として頼れるものではありません。その旨、閲覧中は注意をして下さい。

  1. If you are tired of endless writing assignments, then turn to EssayPedia.com. This online service knows how to write a good paper and make your peers jealous.
    https://topessayservices.com/essaypedia/

  2. There’s a difference between satiric picture published in media and a work of art, as the first one is usually thought to be rather a comment on current (political/social/economic/etc) situation, whilst the work of art ex definitione is to be considered on every level: from aesthetic up to methaphysical.
    At this moment it in my opinion kind’a mistake to compare the two mentioned opera.
    The problem of modern art is that it becomes impossible to define it’s borders – what is yet and what isn’t already an art.
    At this point vandals had the same rights to express themselves by destroying the Piss Christ, like its author. By this I mean the performance of devastation which becomes a part of artistic process. This is the result of what the art became and how it is being understood by viewers.
    There are many cases of formally static work of art (sculpture, painting, instalation etc) becomes a part of a dynamic action which changes its meaning even if it wasn’t intended by either authors and vandals.
    In this case supporting artists with public money is just a part of the cultural and artistic development of society with all the risk included.
    On the other hand public or private media cover completely different area and level of society activity focusing on everyday common problems, up-to-date situation in politics, economy etc. which brings also different way response from possible opponents. In the Mahomet case the response wasn’t just devastation of exhibit, but a bomb attack on embassy.
    The difference in the publishing context and its consequences makes these two cases incomparable.

    (P.S. sorry for any misspelling and grammar error – I’d rather write in polish language, as it is much easier to clear up point of view in writing)

  3. The art was created with intention and message. It was political, a tool, and within the artist’s right to create and display.

  4. Language in itself is a public tool. Following your arguments you would have to say that no one is allowed to say anything because it offends someone. Artist or anyone can say and print whatever he or she wants. It’s only a problem of ‘religious’ people that they identify themselves with the symbols and treat its reuse as offensive. As a result thay oppress non believes and freedom of speech. No one is an owner of Mahomet or Jesus and no one has the right to say how you can or can not use their images.

  5. The author argues “the right of artists to publicly express themselves, visually or otherwise must be protected, even at the risk of deeply offending audiences”, yet she offers no reason why.

    Everyone who enters the public realm, as artists “expressing themselfes in public” do, assume certain obligations towards all other members in public. They enter a space within which their liberty to do/say whatever they want must be balanced against everyone else’s liberty to do/say whatever they want. It follows that where a person’s actions have the potential to “deeply offend” other members of the public – encroaching e.g. in this case upon their entitlement to respect for their religious believe, the offending actor has to justify whatever he/she does. So in order to defend the Piss Christ properly, one has to explain the value of trampling upon an object that is very special to very many people compared to the value of having certain limits in society of courtesy and respect towards otherness. In my personal opinion, there are much more effective ways to criticise the commercialisation of religion than to urinate on a crucifix. The message was certainly lost on me.

    The fact that the Piss Christ was displayed in a museum and not printed in a paper does not distinguish it from the Mohammed cartoons for at least two reasons. First, apparently the Piss Christ did receive public funding, which compared to the Mohammed cartoons – published in a private newspaper – is actually even worse, because every tax payer whether or not he/she wanted to do so, contributed to the display of the object. Second, it is of course true that one has the choice not to attend the exhibition, however, it would be naive to assume that only those believers who actually saw the cartoon were offended, while everyone else was totally fine with them. The problematic nature of both the cartoons and the Piss Christ does not attach to their visual accessibility, but to their very existence in public spaces (whether it be behind the walls of a museum or on a market place) as such.

    Andres Serrano’s, no doubt, important message regarding the commercialisation of religion could have been delivered in a much more effective manner, had he written an essay on it and spend his evenings in the private company of the Piss Christ at home.

    • I have written my views in some freedom of speech blogs on the internet concerning the nature of or reason for freedom of speech.
      I am certain that many such internet sites are little more than some equivalent of black holes, sucking our mental energies into useless quagmires.
      Even so they do have their uses, for I am not making an argument in a vacuum. My argument is fully functional in the form of a work of art.

      “9/11 The Clouds” https://plus.google.com/u/0/115593826388803739707/posts/p/pub

      Guernica is a painting by Pablo Picasso. It was created in response to the bombing of Guernica, a Basque Country village in northern Spain by German and Italian warplanes.

      9/11 The Clouds is a painting by my self, Perreaoult Daniels. It was created in response to the destruction of the original World Trade Center of New York City, destroyed in the September 11 attacks of 2001

      These two works of art hold a existence and properties parallel in our experience despite our separation in time. The Spanish Republican government commissioned Picasso to create a large mural for the Spanish display at the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne at the 1937 World’s Fair in Paris.
      I created 9/11 the Clouds, of my own volition, shortly after 9/11.
      I shall not go into the details of the image created by Picasso. Guernica has become a universal and powerful symbol warning humanity against the suffering and devastation of war.
      9/11 was not an event occurring between two nations at war. It was a claimed a religious war and sparked great numbers of people to anger and hatred for beliefs not of their own.
      In the buildings, people burned and out of them they fell. In the clouds descending from the Towers high overhead, thousands of burning fluttering papers fell from the sky – their destruction of no concern to anyone. And to the people who did this thing, how could they care about burning papers, when the burning bodies did not move them? Yet I knew instantly that some of those burning falling clouds of paper had to be holy books.

      9/11 The Clouds unlike like Guernica, cries a warning to humanity against the insanity of murder in the name of faith.

      For 9/11 The Clouds, I destroyed in order to create, three holy books. The end result is this Work of Art that I have chosen to Give as a gift to The American People.

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