آزادی اظہار راۓ پر بحث

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1ہم تمام انسانوں کو بلا کسی رکاوٹ یا سرحد کہ اپنے خیالات کا اظہار کرنے کی اور دوسرے لوگوں کے خیالات وصول کرنے کی آزادی ہونی چاہئے.»
2ہم انٹرنیٹ اور دوسرے ذرائع مواصلات کا نجی اور عوامی اداروں کی طرف سے تمام قسم کے غیر قانونی قبضے کے خلاف دفاع کرتے ہے.»
3ہمیں ایک کھلا اور متنوع میڈیا درکار ہے تاکے ہم با شعور فیصلے لیں اور سیاسی زندگی میں بھرپور کردار ادا کر سکیں.»
4ہم تمام انسانی تفریقات و اختلافات کے بارے میں کھلے اور مہذب طریقے سے بات کرتے ہیں.»
5ہم معلومات پر بحث کرنے اور اس کے پھیلاؤ میں کوئی ٹیبوز کی اجازت نہیں دیتے.»
6ہم نہ تو پرتشدد دھمکیاں دیتے ہیں اور نہ ہی ایسی دھمکیوں کو قبول کرتے ہیں»
7ہم ہر شخص اور مؤتقد کا احترام کرتے ہیں لیکن یہ ضروری نہیں کہ ایمان کے مواد کا بھی کریں»
8ہمیں اپنا حق رازداری محفوظ کرنے اور اپنی ذات و ساخ پر الزامات کا جواب دینے کا حق ہے لیکن یہ حق نہیں کے ہم وسیع تر مفاد کے تحت عوامی چھان بین کو روکیں.»
9ہم ان علمی جائداد کے قانون اور عملیات کے خلاف ہیں جو کہ بلا جواز آزادی اظہار راۓ اور سوالات کو روکے.»
10ہمیں آزادی اظہار راۓ اور معلومات تک رسائی پر ان تمام حدود کو چیلنج کرتے ہیں جن کا جواز قومی سلامتی، عوامی نظم و ضبط اور اخلاقیات ہوں.»

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مسکن | مطالعتی کیس | Google Street View in Germany

Google Street View in Germany

In March 2011, a Berlin court ruled that Google Street View was not illegal after a private citizen filed a lawsuit, claiming the technology was an infringement of her property and privacy rights. Sebastian Huempfer looks at the case.

Camera of a German Google Street View car (Photo by Sean Gallup/Getty Images)
Camera of a German Google Street View car (Photo by Sean Gallup/Getty Images)

کیس

Google announced in May 2009 that it would expand Street View, its street-level imaging service, to 20 major cities in Germany. Following public and political pressure, Google worked with German authorities and gave households the chance to opt out and have images of their properties blurred. When the service was launched, 244,000 German households had opted out. The opt-out process was supervised by the Technical Inspection Agency, an organisation, which certifies the safety of consumer products in Germany.

In March 2011, a Berlin court decided that Google Street View was not illegal. The ruling came in a lawsuit filed by a private citizen who had argued that her property and privacy rights could potentially be violated by Google Street View. She had argued that the cameras, mounted atop poles up to three metres high, allowed Google to take photos of her property, despite her house being shielded by a two metre-high hedge. Google has argued that there are no legal barriers for its service in Germany.

By the end of 2011, public concern and debate had largely subsided. Only 80,000 households opted out of Microsoft’s Bing Streetside. According to Google, Germans are amongst the heaviest users of Street View. After the introduction of Street View, usage of Google Maps rose by 25%. However, Google did not expand its service in Germany beyond the initial 20 cities, and has not updated photos of existing (and in some cases no-longer-existing) buildings since 2008.

مصنف کی راۓ

Principle 8 highlights that we are all entitled to a private life and should accept such scrutiny as is in the public interest. In this case, the right of the individuals to protect their privacy has been upheld, and I would agree with those who argue that this was entirely appropriate. Google Street View imposes a level of scrutiny on each citizen that is not warranted by the public interest, given that, as some have argued, the images might be used in the future to profile the inhabitants.

In our second principle, we have argued that we must defend the internet against illegitimate encroachments. In this case, the public demanded a legitimate encroachment, and the state complied. And so it should, in a democratic state. We ought to decide, collectively, whether we want a public good like Google Street View, and no society, democratic or otherwise, has been given this choice.

Finally, what is sometimes overlooked is that Google Street View is a cash-cow. If Google collects images, and derives a profit from them, should those whose property is photographed not be entitled to a share of the profits?

- Sebastian Huempfer
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Published on: فروری 20, 2012 | 2 تبصرے

تبصرے (2)

گوگل کے ترجمے آٹومیٹک مشین ترجمے فراہم نہیں کرتے. ان سے آپ کو کہنے والے کی بات کا لب لباب تو پتا لگ سکتا ہے لیکن یہ آپ کو بات کا بلکل درست ترجمہ بشمول اس کی پیچیدگیوں کے نہیں دے سکتا.ان ترجموں کو پڑھتے وقت آپ یہ بات ضرور ذہن میں رکھیے

  1. sebastianhuempfer says:

    Two comments from Viktor-Mayer Schoenberger at our event “Does Facebook Know To Much?:

    – Many of those who objected did so because they feared that criminals would use Street View to find promising targets for burglaries.

    – VMS argued that by obscuring your house, you send a signal that you are a promising target because you have something to hide. Hence, his important point is that EVEN IF YOU OPTED OUT, you were still forced to send a message to users of Street View – even if it’s just “I don’t like this”. Is this justifiable?

    I would still argue that the right to opt out is a reasonable and sufficient concession. Given that 250 000 people opted out, I don’t think any of them sent a clear signal of any kind – there are just too many different but conceivable motives: some opted out because of burglars, some because they don’t want to be profiled, some because they built fences in the real world and thus want them online as well, and so on.

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آزادی اظہار راۓ آکسفرڈ یونیورسٹی کا ایک تحقیقی پراجکٹ ہے جو کہ سینٹ اینٹونی کالج کے ڈیرنڈورف پروگرام براۓ مطالعہ آزادی کے تحت منعقد کیا جا رہا ہے www.freespeechdebate.ox.ac.uk